Osseous surgery is a procedure in which the bone that holds your teeth in place is reshaped. Periodontitis is most commonly treated with osseous surgery. Patients who suffer from periodontitis have imperfections in the bone around their teeth and osseous surgery removes those imperfections. Before the surgery, a patient would have a periodontal treatment that would include scaling and root planing. To reduce pain, a local anesthetic will be given to the patient. After the roots are cleaned, a drill and a sharp dental tool will be used by the dentist to reshape the bone surrounding the teeth. Should there be an extensive amount of imperfections, the misshapen bone would be removed, and what remains would be shaped. Should imperfections be too large to be treated with reshaping alone, a bone grafting material would be used. After the bones are reshaped, the gums are stitched back to their original form. Osseous grafting is a very common procedure with high rates of success.